It is a procedure to access to abdominal cavity by minor incisions. It is possible to visualize abdominal and pelvic organs throughout an optic device. With this technology it can be made many gynecological procedures that in past only could be done with open surgery.
The main indications are :
- Chronic Pelvic Pain: Long time pain requires to find some diseases witch are better watched and treated by Laparoscopy.
- Infertility: Laparoscopy is a very important diagnostic and treatment method in the fertility problems couple.
- Endometriosis: See the endometriosis lesions are the gold standard method to confirm this disease. Laparoscopy gives the opportunity to determine endometriosis extension and activity and to achieve the surgical treatment.
- Adhesions: They are the result of an inflammatory phenomenon that creates bounds between organs that push them together. They can cause pain and they can be secondary to previous surgery, infections, or endometriosis. Minimally invasive surgery is an effective diagnostic and treatment method. The adhesions can be chronic and appear again; however laparoscopy is a minor tissue trauma and gives the best chance to treat them.
- Hidrosálpinx: When the fallopian tuba is damaged and accumulates liquid. It can cause pain.
- Fallopian Recanalization: Many patients who suffer tubectomy (fallopian tubal surgery for contraception) desire to get pregnant again, so they need a reconstructive surgery of fallopian tubes.
- Uterine Malformations: Congenital disease in uterus shape or function.
- Ectopic Pregnancy: A pregnancy outside uterine cavity.
- Pelvic Tumors: laparoscopy to determine the origin of a pelvic lesion ( ovarian or extra- ovarian ) , guidance on its nature and whether endoscopic treatment is possible.
- Defamatory pelvic disease : Pelvic infections are a major cause of pain and infertility , laparoscopy allows a diagnosis of the processes that inflame the pelvis and allows adequate treatment even in cases that present with complications such as pelvic abscess infections .
- Uterine fibroids : Uterine leiomyoma is the most common solid tumor of female pelvis . Most patients are asymptomatic , but some may develop irregular or heavy periods , pelvic pain, infertility or recurrent abortions in some cases. In patients where surgery is indicated as alternative to hysterectomy ( removal of the uterus ) or myomectomy (removal of fibroids ) that were exclusively performed by open surgery can now be performed laparoscopically.
- Hysterectomy: The removal of the uterus is the most common gynecological surgery. At present, surgery may be performed in most cases laparoscopically whenever performed by experienced laparoscopic surgical specialists and some of its advantages are less bleeding and surgical trauma, less pain, shorter recovery and shorter hospital stay.
- Genital prolapse: The output of the pelvic organs such as the bladder (dropped bladder), intestine, uterus (womb drop) or even after hysterectomy (when there is no uterus vaginal vault can fall) can also be corrected by laparoscopy or including techniques combined vaginal and laparoscopic surgery.
- Other surgeries that can be performed by this technique would oophorectomy (removal of ovaries), salpingectomy (removal of the fallopian tubes) , surgery for urinary incontinence ( involuntary loss of urine), and accounts for nearly 90 % of gynecological surgeries.